What medical training do naturopathic doctors receive?

Naturopathic doctors (NDs) complete a rigorous four-year postgraduate medical education program at an accredited school recognized by the US Department of Education. As with conventional medical schools, the training includes biomedical sciences like anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, as well as clinical sciences such as cardiology, gastroenterology, and neurology. NDs also take courses in natural therapeutics including botanical/herbal medicine, clinical nutrition, counseling, homeopathy, and naturopathic manipulative therapy. Naturopathic training requires
over 1,400 hours of didactic education and over 1,200 patient contact hours, plus preceptorships and internships. They can legally diagnose and treat patients. NDs have the broadest independent scope of any healthcare provider in California other than medical and osteopathic doctors. NDs have physician-level training and are not mid-level practitioners or allied healthcare professionals like nurse practitioners or physician assistants.